Syria is a small country, borders Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, Palestine and Lebanon to the southwest, and Turkey to the north. The population of Syria is around 20 million and its capital is Damascus, or can be called as well in Arabic “El sham”. The largest city is Aleppo, where were around 5 millions are, according to statistics of 2010, so before the war.

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Syria is of course known for fertile plains, which Syria features, aside from high mountains and the deserts in the east. Syria is considered as well a home for many religions and ethnics, Arabs, Greeks, Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Circassians, Mandaeans, and Turks, and the most apparent religions in Syria are Islam, Christianity and Druz.

In English, the name “Syria” it was before an equivalent for “The Levant“, which is known in Arabic as “El shám”, the actual Syrian country now encompasses several sites from old kingdoms and empires, including the civilization of Ebla from the 3rd century BC. its capital Damascus and its largest city Aleppo, are amongst the oldest till now inhabited cities in the world. In the Islamic Era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Empire, and a provincial capital of the mamluk sultanate in Egypt.

The modern Syrian state was established after the end of centuries of Ottoman control in World War I as a French mandate, and represented the largest Arab state, which emerges from the formerly Ottoman-ruled Arab Levant. It gained independence as a parliamentary republic on 24 October 1945 when Syria became a founding member of the United Nations, an act which legally ended the former French Mandate – although French troops did not leave the country until April 1946. The post-independence period was tumultuous, and a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–71.

In 1958, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic, which was terminated by a syrian coup of 1961. The Arab Republic of Syria came into being in late 1961 after December 1 constitutional referendum, and the situation was increasingly unstable until the Ba’ath party has maintained its power. Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011, which was later cancelled for the requirements of people.

edited, from Wikipedia on 1st, Jan 2017.

 

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